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Technical comparative
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Mechanical properties of iron at room temperature
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Tensile strength (Ksi) [U]25 to 5060 to 1007090
Yield strength (Ksi)-40 to 604560
Elongation (%) [EL] <1202623
Hardness (BHN)160 - 210170 - 220120 - 160180 - 220
Charpy test - V-shaped notch [J] at 20°C1.5 - 712 - 2025 - 5060 - 120
Crack growth resistance (MPa m)11 - 1945 - 10050 - 17550 - 175
Castability of iron
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Ability to fill thin and extended cavitiesExcellent GoodAverageAverage
Shrinkage free hardeningExcellentGood BadBad
Behavior of iron according to temperature gradients
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Basic thermal resistance parameter (Eα/k)24675589
Basic thermal resistance parameter (Eα/k) 9797
Estimated thermal stress 1200°FGoodAverageAverage / GoodAverage / Good
Thermal shockBad / AverageAverageGoodGood
Thermal constraints Mechanical endurance at 1200°FBad / AverageAverageGood Good / Very good
High temperature resistance (Ksi)46914 / 30
Iron resistance to oxidation and scaling
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Resistance to oxidation / ScalingAverageGoodGoodGood
Dimensional stability of iron at high temperature
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Shape stabilityExcellentAverageBadAverage
Creep, (%/hr at 800°F, 25 Ksi)Excellent .001 - .01Average .02 - .2Bad / Average .05 - .5 Bad / Average .005 - .05
Resistance to swellingBadGoodGood / Very goodVery good
Degradation of mechanical properties of iron according to temperature
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Degradation of tensile strength at 750°F<15%<15%<15%<15%
Degradation of yield strength -<15%<15%<15%
Degradation of elongation strength at 750°F-<15%<15%<15%
Degradation of resistance at 1100°F<50%<50%>90%>50%
Degradation of resistance at 1300°F>75%>75%>95%>80%
QI< 500380005500050000 / 85000
Other manufacturing characteristics of iron
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
MachinabilityExcellentGoodAverageAverage
FormabilityNilBadExcellentAverage
HardenabilityVery goodExcellentBadBad / Low
WeldabilityBad BadExcellentGood
Physical properties of iron at room temperature
Grey IronDuctile IronLow carbon Steel CastingLow Alloy Steel Casting
Density (lbs/in³)0.260.260.260.28
Poisson's ratio[ט]0.280.280.30.3
Modulus of elasticity(Tension) (Psi) [E]13000000260000003000000030000000
Modulus of rigidity (Shearing) (Psi) [G]580000098000001150000011500000
Thermal conductivity (BTU/Hr/ft²/inch/°F) [k](Cu=2700325250350225
Thermal expansion coefficient(/°F) [a]5.8 x 10-66.5 X 10-66.5 X 10-66.7 X 10-6
Damping capacity40 to 1253 to 101 to 21 to 2
Electrical resistivity(µ Ohm . Cm) [ρ] (Cu =1.67)80 to 10040 to 601215
Magnetic properties (KiloGauss/Oersteds@100 Oersteds10141616
Pattern-making shrinkage (%)0.831.041.562.08
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